100 Years in Pictures

Albert Sabin (left) developed the oral vaccine given to Cleveland children.2001: Cleveland Botanical GardenGordon Park in its heyday1998: Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad1956: Cleveland Institute of ArtPlayhouse Square, c. 1969The Frederick C. Crawford Auto Aviation Collection at the Western Reserve Historical SocietyHalprin’s impressionist sketch of Cleveland’s “Flats,” which he praised as a “tremendous resource.”  
LAND Studio’s proposed redesign of Public SquareHarold T. ClarkPlanning model of Cleveland, c. 1960Cleveland OrchestraLeyton E. Carter2009: Cleveland Institute of ArtCool Cleveland editor and publisher Tom Mulready1996: Old Stone ChurchWade Oval Wednesdays, summertime’s popular outdoor music series2005: ideastreamA landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision righted the injustice experienced by Clarence Earl Gideon, a drifter who was convicted of felony theft because he could not afford an attorney and had defended himself at trial.Vietnamese lutist Pham Thi Hue was Young Audiences of Northeast Ohio’s artist in residence in 2013.First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (third from left) at the 1937 dedication of Lakeview Terrace, the nation’s first public housingCleveland Museum of ArtCircle institutions have invested or are planning to invest billions in capital improvements, such as University Hospitals of Cleveland’s new Seidman Cancer Center.1999: Western Reserve Historical SocietyCleveland Institute of ArtDancer/choreographer Kapila Palihawadana of Sri Lanka, 2012 artist in residence with the Inlet Dance Theatre, conducts a master dance class at the Beck Center for the Performing Arts.Sustaining the excellence of the region’s cultural assets: a summer solstice party at the Cleveland Museum of ArtEdgewater Park under state stewardshipThe foundation’s vision of creating a wind farm in Lake Erie is moving closer to reality.Cleveland voters expressed their hopes for the success of the reform plan by approving the Issue 107 operating levy.SPACESDavid GoldbergCleveland Ballet co-founder Dennis Nahat as the tsar and Nanette Glushak as the tsarina in the company’s signature holiday performance of The NutcrackerThe formal entrance to the Judson Park retirement community, an independent living facility erected in 1974 next to the traditional nursing home established by the Baptist Home of Ohio in the former Bicknell mansion on Cleveland’s east sideFairfaxBarbecue restaurant owner Al (Bubba) Baker received a microloan that enabled the former Browns football player to begin local distribution of his proprietary de-boned baby-back ribs.By 1929, when Cleveland laid claim to having the tallest skyscraper in the country—the Terminal Tower, evocatively captured here by famed photographer Margaret Bourke-White—the community foundation movement had spread across America.Ivan Lecaros (right), a master printmaker from Chile, puts the final touches on a drawing for a silkscreen print during his 2012 residency at Zygote Press.The foundation helped to draft and win passage of a clean energy law for Ohio.Cleveland Film SocietyIn 1967, this Cleveland Heights home, owned by an African American, was bombed in a senseless and vain attempt to halt the suburb’s integration.Tri-C JazzFest, 1993A greasy-spoon diner and flophouse at Payne and Walnut Avenues downtown, c. 1968—emblems of the City of Cleveland’s intensifying financial distress F. James and Rita Rechin Fund1964: Garden Center of Greater ClevelandBarack Obama campaigns at Tri-C, 2007Steven A. MinterKaramu House1981: Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland1985: Cleveland State UniversityTri-C’s early use of computers as a teaching aid, c. 1980Cleveland Public ArtClean water advocates, 1968Raymond Q. ArmingtonLakeview Terrace1961: Benjamin Rose InstituteHunter MorrisonAn assembly line at the Ford Motor Company plant in Brook Park, 1973: manufacturing jobs on the declineA new company that makes and installs solar-panel arrays has been created with foundation support.Cleveland’s well-financed and -run network of community development organizations targeted this crumbling but historic eight-unit rowhouse in the Central neighborhood for rehabilitation.Treu-Mart FundBusiness growth: The Greater Cleveland Partnership’s business development teamBelle SherwinJames D. WilliamsonMichael D. White won voter support for “mayoral control” of the Cleveland public schools.Donald and Ruth GoodmanFoundation leaders confer about how to distribute 1947 income of $614,479 to a standing list of charitable institutions and agencies. Foundation director Leyton E. Carter (third from right) is seated next to the board’s sole female member, Constance Mather Bishop. Anisfield-Wolf Book AwardsThe East Central Townhomes, after a $1.2 million renovation by Burten, Bell and Carr Development CorporationDetroit ShorewayMembers of the African-American Philanthropy Committee: Reverend Elmo A. Bean, Doris A. Evans, M.D., David G. Hill, Lillian W. BurkeAddressing the changing socioeconomic needs of the African-American community: 20th anniversary convening of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, hosted by Cleveland in 1929MAGNET incubator graduate, DXY Solutions, makes components and software for mobile devices.John Sherwin Jr.Barbara Haas RawsonCatharine Monroe LewisThe State TheatreGlenville High School students, 1914The Great Lakes Science Center’s wind turbineThe West 25th Street retail district in Ohio City exemplifies the objective recently adopted by Neighborhood Progress, Inc. of restoring market forces in target neighborhoods.Ellwood H. FisherMalvin E. BankParticipants in Parade the Circle, an annual celebration of creativity Architectural drawing of the Cleveland Metropolitan Housing Authority's Lakeview Tower, a senior high-rise proposed for the near west side in 1971Support for humanitarian aid to the unemployed: Stone carvers responsible for the iconic pylons of the Lorain-Carnegie Bridge, a rare Depression-era construction project completed in 1932 with bond funds approved before the stock market crashAndrew Carnegie, the “king of steel,” created a private foundation to carry out his philanthropic activities. Goff invented a simpler, more affordable mechanism to serve the charitable impulses of caring individuals of all means.Carl B. Stokes at a town hall meeting, 1969: an historic but troubled mayoral administration CommunityFoundationAtlas.org websiteAn east-side Cleveland elementary school, 1963: growing frustration with what appears to be systematic segregation2000: Cleveland Zoological SocietyCarlton K. Matson2006: MOCA ClevelandRonald B. RichardSt. Joseph's Orphanage for Girls on Woodland AvenueThe Dolan Center for Science and Technology at John Carroll University incorporated green building materials and smart energy and water systems.Green City Growers Cooperative’s 3.25-acre hydroponic greenhouse in the Central neighborhood opened in 2013.  Welcome committees were organized to greet bused students on their first day at their new crosstown schools. An owner-employee of the Evergreen LaundryThe grand opening of The Avenue at Tower City, 1990Institute of Pathology at Western Reserve University, as it appeared at its opening in 1929Reinhold W. Erickson, D.D.S.Frank H. and Nancy L. Porter FundThe passenger terminal at Cleveland-Hopkins Airport, c. 1956Cleveland Play HouseFirst grants to advance serious medical research in an era still plagued with quackery: The Cunningham Sanitarium, located at East 185th Street and Lake Shore Boulevard, c. 1928. The sanitarium offered patients access to the world’s largest hyperbaric chamber, but its claims for the benefits of oxygen therapy proved specious.Harry Coulby FundsCharles P. BoltonCleveland Institute of MusicRock and Roll Hall of Fame and MuseumJohn L. McChord1968: Karamu HouseInauguration ceremony of the 1975 World Conference of the International Women’s Year, Mexico CityGroundWorks Dance TheaterAdvocating greater reliance on clean energy: a wind farm in northwestern OhioMAGNET consultants helped Nextant Aerospace of Richmond Heights, Ohio, apply lean principles to its specialty business of remanufacturing corporate jets for an under-$5 million market. After their father's untimely death, future political icons Carl (left) and Louis Stokes lived with their mother at Outhwaite Homes.2003: Hanna Perkins Center for Child DevelopmentCleveland, Ohio, the birthplace of an entirely new concept of philanthropyCharles A. RatnerThe Cleveland Foundation emerged from the crucible of the 1960s a stronger leader and more strategic grantmaker.The 2011 renovation of the Allen Theatre's main auditorium1976: Cleveland Play HouseUpper Chester, which abuts the Cleveland Clinic, is the next Circle neighborhood slated for redevelopment.The gallery's second home on Bellflower Road in University CircleTri-C groundbreaking, 1966Business attraction: The Global Center for Health Innovation2004: The Gathering PlaceEuclid Avenue, looking east, c. 1910Ohio CityThe Cleveland Housing Network assisted the Mt. Pleasant Now nonprofit development corporation with the construction of the Union Court senior apartments.Tom L. Johnson, a reformer who served as Cleveland’s mayor from 1901 to 1909, helped to shape the city’s progressive climate. Progressive Field at GatewayLeadership of a 1933 initiative to replace squalid tenements with subsidized garden apartmentsCommencement at Tri-C, 1975J. Kimball JohnsonSherwick FundUnder the leadership of former CEO Baiju Shah, BioEnterprise created, recruited or helped to grow more than 170 local biotechnology companies.The issues facing 21st-century Clevelanders—educational and economic opportunity, neighborhood and cultural vitality, and strong health and human services—are much the same as those with which earlier generations wrestled.Famed urban planner Lawrence Halprin (right) presented his ideas for downtown Cleveland’s redevelopment at a public forum in 1975 attended by Cleveland mayor Ralph J. Perk (center) and May Company department store president Francis Coy (left).The Cleveland Foodbank’s LEED-certified distribution centerStokes with his brother Louis (left)Dancing WheelsTremontCaptain Frank’s seafood restaurant at the end of the Ninth Street Pier once commanded downtown’s best view of Lake Erie.John J. DwyerProposed townhomes for East 118th StreetThe March on Washington, August 28, 1963, at which Martin Luther King Jr. called upon the nation to make good on democracy’s promise of social and economic freedom for all citizens 1973: Severance Hall1957: Cleveland Museum of Natural HistoryManchester Bidwell, the Pittsburgh model on which NewBridge is based, has instilled a love of learning in teens who previously did not fare well in school.Frances Southworth, Goff’s bride and intellectual partnerCleveland schools CEO Eric Gordon and Cleveland mayor Frank Jackson stumping in 2012 for the passage of the first operating levy to be placed on the ballet in 16 yearsVice President Hubert H. Humphrey showed his support for Stokes’s Cleveland: NOW! initiative on a visit to the city in 1968.Ralph J. Perk lends a hand to the theater restoration project, which began during his tenure as Cleveland mayor. Graduation day at Cleveland Early College High School, 2012Jacqueline F. WoodsNew Gallery co-founders Marjorie Talalay (left) and Nina Castelli SundellLinking city kids to life-enriching programs: Duffy Liturgical Dance teaches children to perform and thus preserve songs and dances created by African slaves in America.The reversal of downtown Cleveland’s stagnation, symbolized by the redevelopment of the Terminal Tower, is a 60-year-old work in progress in which the foundation has been steadily engaged.Title VIII (the “Federal Fair Housing Act”) of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, signed by President Johnson a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., advanced the struggle for integration taking place in Cleveland’s eastern suburbs and elsewhere across the nation.Alfred M. Rankin Jr.Innovation: CleveMed’s wireless sleep monitorMOCA Cleveland’s faceted, mirrored, four-story art gallery anchors the Uptown development.Holsey Gates HandysideThe restored Hungarian Cultural GardenL. Dale Dorney FundMAGNET’s Prism program helped Cleveland-based Vitamix keep up with demand for its high-end blenders.Cleveland OrchestraR. M. Fischer’s Sports StacksThe foundation’s 1915 public education survey resulted in sweeping reform. For decades thereafter, Cleveland’s school system was regarded as a model of excellence.Cleveland’s busy riverfront, south of the Superior ViaductFred S. McConnellTo date, 100 percent of the student body at the School of Science and Medicine goes on to college.1986: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and MuseumGoff in a rare moment of leisure1984: Cleveland Department of Parks, Recreation and PropertiesProjects receiving recent Neighborhood Connection grants have ranged from hands-on crafts classes to the reintroduction of beekeeping.  Frederick Harris Goff, humanitarian, 1858‒1923Sophisticated life support equipment in an air ambulance made by Nextant Aerospace, Ohio’s only aircraft manufacturer and a MAGNET clientCleveland mayor Ralph S. LocherGoff wisely decided that an independent citizen’s committee should determine how a community foundation’s income should be distributed, rather than the directors of the foundation’s trustee bank. 1982: The Temple1959: Cleveland Institute of MusicCleveland City Hospital’s “iron lung” respirator, used for treating polio patients whose paralyzed muscles cause breathing difficulties, 19331982: Cleveland Institute of Art2006: Cleveland Clinic FoundationSinging AngelsEntrepreneurship: Wood Trac, an affordable, drop-ceiling system developed and marketed by Sauder Woodworking, a family-owned business in Ashland, OhioProtest demonstration at Cleveland State University, 1969: poverty rates in the central city on the rise2010: Case Western Reserve UniversityThe bulldozer operator accidentally backed over Rev. Klunder in order to avoid hurting the protestors lying in front of him.Carl W. Brand1986: Cain ParkKenneth W. Clement M.D.MAGNET incubator tenant Tom Lix, the founder and CEO of Cleveland Whiskey, which has developed a proprietary process for accelerating the aging of distilled liquorsKent H. SmithGeorge and Janet VoinovichA. E. Convers FundCommunityFoundationAtlas.org websitePrivately developed Beacon Place Townhomes on East 82nd Street—evidence of the return of middle-class Clevelanders to the central cityHalprin worksheet27 Coltman, a luxury townhome development on the eastern boundary of University Circle1972: Huron Road MallFostering economic opportunity via college scholarships: Garment workers at Joseph & Feiss Company, makers of the $15 blue serge suitNewBridge prepares adults for careers as health care technicians.Cleveland BalletJames R. GarfieldThe multitude of organizational nameplates on the door to the Cleveland Foundation’s offices in the 1970s testified to its rebirth as a nexus of progressive philanthropy and an incubator of social-action programs.  The Palace, the flagship of the Keith chain of vaudeville theaters, reinvented itself as a wide-screen movie house in the 1950s.Apollo’s FireMaster planner I. M. Pei (right), Cleveland’s urban renewal director James Lister (center) and chief architect Jack Hayes at the Erieview Tower construction site, 1954 H. Stuart HarrisonMayor Dennis Kucinich’s ceremonial presentation of a post-default debt paymentChester Avenue demarks the northern border of the MidTown Corridor.Stanley C. PaceA new generation of Circle fansThe Board of Education building in downtown Cleveland, longtime headquarters of the system’s central administrationArtist’s conception of the new Regional Transit Authority station planned for Mayfield Road in Little ItalyMort Epstein’s Pop Art-inspired electrical outlet, a CAAC-commissioned mural, graced the Union building on Euclid Avenue.Green City Growers supplies Bibb lettuce, green leaf lettuce, gourmet lettuces and basil to institutional and commercial customers.MOCA ClevelandThe cast of Nicholas NicklebyThe NAACP-Cleveland’s fight for desegregation ultimately leads in 1973 to a federal lawsuit against the Cleveland public schools: the likelihood of court-ordering busing Homer C. Wadsworth2007: Great Lakes Theater Festival1996: Dunham Tavern Museum2000: Therapeutic Riding Center1991: Hathaway Brown School2004: Cleveland Museum of ArtLexington VillageMalcolm L. McBrideGlobal Cleveland’s welcome centerFrances Southworth GoffThe Ohio Department of Natural Resources invested more than $40 million in capital improvements to the band of green spaces renamed the Cleveland Lakefront State Park. 1997: Cleveland Clinic FoundationThe Goff home on Lake Shore Boulevard in BratenahlRaymond C. MoleyNeighbors who have come together to work on improvement of their neighborhoodUptown, the Circle’s exciting, new high-density neighborhood, has all the amenities associated with urban living.John SherwinKatharine Holden Thayer by Cindy NaegeleThe original Free Clinic, a drug treatment center on Cornell RoadEvergreen Energy Solution’s photovoltaic panelsOhio governor John Kasich at the signing of House Bill 525, legislation enabling education reform, in June 2012Nancy Dwyer’s Who’s on First? benchContaminants flowing into Lake Erie, 1965Great Lakes Science Center1968: Holden ArboretumSold out! Heritage Lane townhomes, built within walking distance of the CirclePalace Theatre lobbyChurch Square Commons, offering affordable apartments for adults 55 and older, is one of the Famicos Foundation’s most recent projects in Hough.Cleveland Housing Network was the lead developer of Greenbridge Commons, permanent housing for chronically homeless individuals, in the Fairfax neighborhood.Presbyterian minister Bruce W. Klunder died while protesting the construction of three public elementary schools that Cleveland’s civil rights community believed would perpetuate a system of segregated and inferior education for African-American students.The Allen Theatre, originally an opulent silent movie house, c. 1938Cleveland Housing Network financing programs have helped low- to moderate-income families become homeowners.Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin CollegeJames A. NortonFlotsam despoiling the beach at Gordon ParkRichard W. PogueKucinich proclaiming victory on the eve of his election as mayor in 1977Slavic VillageOn December 15, 1978, Cleveland City Council considered and rejected Mayor Kucinich’s 11th-hour plan to avoid default.1994: Great Lakes Science MuseumWade Lagoon, the tranquil heart of Cleveland’s cultural hub Lake-Geauga FundGrand opening of the Outhwaite Homes, 1937A burning desire to be an attorney animated Goff as a young man.  Hough’s frustrations with its seemingly intractable problems erupted into violence during the summer of 1966.Great Lakes Theater FestivalThe Peter B. Lewis Building, designed by Frank Gehry, is the home of Case Western Reserve University’s Weatherhead School of Management.Although the foundation’s trailblazing was a faded tradition by 1955, when this picture of the trustee bank presidents holding a replica of the foundation’s logo was snapped, its stature as the world’s first community trust remained a source of pride.Goff did not believe that philanthropy should be the exclusive province of wealthy individuals such as Standard Oil Company founder John D. Rockefeller, a client of Goff’s former law firm.Stokes and his wife, Shirley, on election day, 1968 Dispersed by police, the protesters did not succeed in halting construction, but Klunder’s martyrdom inspired the civil rights community to continue what was ultimately a victorious fight against segregation of the Cleveland public schools.The Cleveland Trust Company’s neoclassical banking hall, which opened in 1908, was topped by an immense stained-glass dome.James A. Ratner2013: Friends of the Cleveland School of the Arts1975: Kenneth C. Beck Center for the Cultural Arts1976: Sokol HallDr. King speaking in Rockefeller Park on a visit to Cleveland in 1967. The previous year he had dramatized the issue of housing discrimination by moving his family into a grimy apartment on the segregated west side of Chicago and joining in protest marches into that city’s all-white neighborhoods.An examination room at the Glenville Health ClinicRobert E. Eckardt, Ph.D.2010: Hawken SchoolA “City Canvases” mural by graphic designer John Morell2002: Shaker Lakes Regional Nature Center2002: Cleveland Institute of MusicAretha Franklin at the Tri-C JazzFest1967: Blossom Music CenterThe RetreatA satellite photograph of Lake Erie, downtown Cleveland and the Cuyahoga River valley: The foundation has learned to take the long view in helping the community craft fresh responses to persistent urban problems.Harry Goldblatt, M.D.University Circle’s cultural institutions have long been renowned for their enriching educational activities.On his way to building Cleveland Trust into America’s sixth largest bank, Goff occasionally took time out to indulge his passion for fishing.